Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Feasibility study of BAC - Essay Example Happy-Smile BAC Financial Representative Code 3394 Re: Contract N234734-56-E-2353 BAC Circuitry Board Corporation Contract Task Order (CTO) 2324 Draft Final RI/FS Business Proposal Unit No. 45 Dear Mr. Happy-Smile, PAL Feasible Firm, Inc (FS) is contented to submit the Feasibility study (FS) work plan and proposal concerning the remedy of bottlenecks. The deliverable will be submitted due two weeks (dated December 25, 2011). They are incorporated with the comments of FS proposal that was submitted two weeks earlier that is (dated 10 2011). There existed no changes what so ever in the previously delivered proposal and hence no final draft will be submitted. In accordance with the scheduled proposal provided earlier are due not later than two weeks from delivery (dated January 4, 2012). If you have any questions regarding this submittal, please contact PAL Feasible Firm. Sincerely, PAL Feasible Firm, INC. Jacobs Jolly Project Manager Cc: Project Manager BAC Feasibility Study of BAC Rat ionale Feasibility studies can be employed in various ways, primarily focusing on proposed commercial ventures. Therefore, they are meant to rationally clarify the opportunities and threats in a business. For instance, in BAC firm, it is proposed to deal with bottlenecks to inflate the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s production and in the long-run maximize profits. Hence early determination of the viability of the notion before proceeding to the implementation stage is significantly recommended in BAC. Thus the study will provide a risk free opportunity in combating bottlenecks within the organization. Though the task may seem overwhelming, it may be cost effective and hence lure a potential investor to venture into the business for encroachment into other markets that is expansion (Kreigsmann, 1979 p. 35-42). Need for the Study The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s operations are primarily declining due to production bottleneck. This is as a result of unplanned shifting of workload from one process to another. The firm is therefore, having an uphill task in anticipating the workload pile up in the firm daily as a consequence of individual orders from clienteles who impose completely different workloads in each operation carried out (Rick, 1999 p. 15). Furthermore, the firm considers 4-day-rush orders which demand reworking at either one or two operations. In this event it delays delivery processes and modification necessary, because employees are shifted from one operation to another depending on demand of operation. As a consequence of this some workstations are left vacant and others overloaded. Scope of the Project The report will look into how combating bottlenecks can work in the long-run enduring financial risks in the course of the business. Furthermore, it will aid in discovering the potential working strategy and cash flows. On the other hand planners will be able to critically focus on bottlenecks and target practicable options. The employees will therefore depict their response through positive or negative feedback upon execution of the plan in BAC. BAC is a firm that deals with the manufacturing of printed circuit boards to the specifications of its different customers. Thus the firm applies innovative designs and archetype production methodologies that facilitate the firm to be adept in resolving clientele issues. Conversely, despite the successful continuance of BAC employees over its processes, several setbacks have been encountered in sustaining the firmÃ¢â¬â¢
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Research Paper Topics on Urinary Infections in the ElderlyThere are several ideas for research papers that address urinary infections in the elderly. In fact, you will find a number of very creative ideas, however, not all of them will work. There are some very good ideas for research papers on this topic but the key to finding good research ideas for this topic is to make sure that you don't get the idea from someone else.One very good idea would be to ask your doctor about this issue and learn if there are specific medications or surgical treatments that are available to cure the problem. As an added note, there are two kinds of urinary tract infections - the simple type and the chronic type. The simple type is usually caused by a bacterial infection of the bladder, while the chronic type is caused by a virus. Both of these types are equally treatable with antibiotics.A physician may be able to tell you if the infection is caused by a virus or the immune system. This way, you will know what you need to do and you won't have to resort to surgery or take another drug. However, to get this information, you may need to get an appointment with your doctor and you may need to do a little research yourself.Some of the other ideas for research papers that address urinary infections in the elderly include testing for antibodies against the urinary tract infections causing bacteria, testing the urine for any blood in it, and testing the urine for toxins that can be passing into the bloodstream through the urinary tract. You may also want to check for allergies to foods or chemicals that can be passing into the blood stream through the urinary tract.If you are not sure if your immune system is able to fight against urinary tract infections, your doctor will probably do a blood test to determine this. In addition, you may also want to talk to your health care provider about whether there are specific types of medications or surgeries that will prevent the infection from happening. These are things that you don't want to try yourself, however, so let your doctor know.Since so many of these ideas can be found online, you may want to see if you can get a sample of the medication and study it yourself. Once you have used the drug, you will be able to assess whether it actually did help or not.These are just a few of the research paper topics that you can look at. It is important to keep in mind that you should not get ideas from just anyone.
Thursday, February 6, 2020
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Wednesday, February 5, 2020
The Do's and Don'ts of Psychology Research Paper Topics on Fear Fear and stress interact on a lot of levels. It is vital to highlight that anxiety disorders are the most commonly recognized class of mental issues and are comorbid with one another and other mental issues. Although anxiety disorders are universally experienced by lots of people around the world, they cause a significant quantity of stress. Social Anxiety Disorder is regarded as the third largest mental healthcare problem on the planet. Key Pieces of Psychology Research Paper Topics on Fear In some instances you might take action against the individual who was insulting. Another thing that someone should think about is the examiner's instructions. Your paper is going to be the foundation for a coming DHS press conference where the Deputy Director will make an effort to assuage the public's fear. The person has been persuaded by subtle cues rather than the content. What Needs to be Done About Psychology Rese arch Paper Topics on Fear In the event you and someone else writes your paper on the identical subject, it is actually tricky to provide you both the very same grade even if they would have received the identical grade separately. You might want to make certain you are working on it throughout the semester, so you have an excellent paper by the end. Just like any research paper essay, the main issue is to construct your topic and paper with the robust evidence. Although writing these papers is simpler than you might imagine, there are a few things you should know. Before starting a search for a topic, ensure you realize the kind and period of paper you're assigned. Your topic is largely dependent on the form and length of the paper you should write. The solution to your research question is going to be your thesis statement that's the primary focus of your paper. The Hidden Gem of Psychology Research Paper Topics on Fear The intent of a psychology research paper, just enjoy any sort of scientific writing, is to find the audience updated about developments in the psychology field. There are many things you're able to discuss in your psychology papers that it may be tough to choose something specific. There is an enormous selection of topics, when it has to do with psychology. As you see, there's a massive range of psychological topics to discuss, when it regards psychology. If you're writing a psychology research paper within this form, your instructor might specify the amount of studies that you should cite in addition to the length. In some instances, students simply devise the study and after that imagine the potential results that may occur. Psychology is one the disciplines that have plenty of topics to pick from and that's why lots of students gets a difficult time attempting to choose one. It isn't surprising that for the majority of the students psychology becomes a really hard subject. Make sure you can form a great hypothesis on this issue you're selecting and you must pick a topic that has sufficient content easily available and accessible via online forums. As you consider these various topics, you are going to be able to detect something that may help you to place your project together. Finding the correct topic is essential to your psychology research writing. Detecting a topic for your study can be hard, but there are many great a pproaches to produce intriguing ideas. Psychology Research Paper Topics on Fear Can Be Fun for Everyone You can concentrate on the effects of the subsequent topics on the nature and development of a young child, adult or elderly. If you're stuck at any location in the practice of topic development or another stage of term paper writing, you may always locate online academic writing services to aid you get through the process without a lot of trouble. Fortunately, there are a number of techniques to simplify the procedure and today we'll familiarize you with 50 topics for all academic levels. Additional research needs to be directed to the neurochemical processes that take place in the brain and the chemical components involved with response to fear. Psychology Research Paper Topics on Fear for Dummies Not all phobias have a name, but it doesn't signify they do not exist, they exist and ought to be cared. Fear is a reaction of the human body to dangerous conditions in society o r an immediate threat to life. Although it has been classified as an emotion by psychologists, it is a very basic human emotion and can be almost considered as a simple feeling. In addition to the clinical abnormality of phobias, it can also be associated with the condition known as Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Locating a good topic is just one of the most crucial steps when writing any kind of paper. You need to make sure you select a topic that has enough details on it to compose a good paper. Make certain there are enough online sources on the subject you've chosen. It's always much much better to locate a specific, narrow topic. The Argument About Psychology Research Paper Topics on Fear To prevent possible misunderstandings, make sure that you know what you're speaking about in your paper. For example, you could tackle any present issue in psychology like equality in mental wellness. It's a science that's based on human behavior, mental wellness and human psyche. The function of aggression in psychological improvement.
Friday, January 31, 2020
Robert BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Soliloquy of the Spanish CloisterÃ¢â¬ Essay Robert BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Soliloquy of the Spanish CloisterÃ¢â¬ is, as the title suggests, the soliloquy of an unnamed monk, complaining to himself against Brother Laurence, another monk whom he has to be cloistered with in the monastery. He accuses the other monk with numerous immoralities and values against their faith and chosen vocation. However, the very offenses that he accuses Brother Laurence with reveal his own violation of each one. The monkÃ¢â¬â¢s grumpy mood can be inferred from the non-verbal words in the poem like Ã¢â¬Å"Gr-r-rÃ¢â¬ (line 1) and Ã¢â¬Å"Whew! Ã¢â¬ (line 17) and the colloquial expressions of disgust like Ã¢â¬Å"Saint, forsooth! Ã¢â¬ (line 25). In spite the anger, the rhyme and rhythm are regular and restrained all throughout, in consistence with the formal and self-righteous personality of the speaker. He remains dignified externally, but seethes inside. Meanwhile, the stanzas enumerate the many accusations the monk levels against Brother Laurence, all of which expose his own hypocrisies. In the fourth stanza, the monk accuses the other of desiring Brown Dolores. At the same time, he describes her with details that are beyond a cursory description like his comment on her Ã¢â¬Å"Blue-black, lustrous steeping tressesÃ¢â¬ ¦thick like horsehairsÃ¢â¬ (lines 28-29), revealing his own hidden desires for the woman. In the fifth stanza, he criticizes Brother LaurenceÃ¢â¬â¢s table manners, how Ã¢â¬Å"when he finishes reflection/ Knife and fork he never lays/ Cross-wifeÃ¢â¬ (lines 33-36) like the self-righteous speaker does after meals. Here he is guilty of thinking badly about his fellow and vanity for thinking he is better than the other man. He also plans to tempt the other monk with his own copy of a Ã¢â¬Å"scrofulous French novelÃ¢â¬ (line 57), exposing his own lustful preoccupation. The final hypocrisy is shown in the final lines where the monk intersperses his vesper prayers with a curse against Brother Laurence, implicating himself to heresy. Work Cited Browning, Robert. Ã¢â¬Å"Soliluquy of the Spanish Cloister. Ã¢â¬
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Free Blacks compared to Slaves The next few paragraphs will compare blacks in the north to blacks in the south in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. In either location blacks were thought of as incompetent and inferior. The next few paragraphs will explain each groupÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle and manner of living. Up north all blacks were free. The population of blacks in the north was about 1% in 1860 after the American Revolution. The blacks up north had minimal rights. The blacks could not vote, because of stipulations or they were just told that they could not vote by laws of their area. The New York Convention created one stipulation that was created to exclude blacks from voting in 1821; the law stated that blacks could not vote if they did not own property. Most blacks were having a tough time getting jobs in the south. So if a black person could not generate income how were they supposed to buy a home? In the north the blacks only had menial jobs. Menial jobs were basically jobs that you needed no skill and received small pay. Jobs of skill were kept away from blacks. If blacks tried to get the skill jobs they were either turned away or beat up by workers. About 95% of blacks in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s were working menial jobs. The jobs that the blacks acquired were the jobs that whites would not take. Whites just thought of blacks as dumb and incapable people, they were only capable for menial jobs. Blacks in the north were separated from their white counterparts in everyway. Legislators were always creating laws to keep the races divided. Many states tried to impose laws that would segregate schools. The whites did not want black kids going to the same school because if blacks and whites mingled there could be inter marriage. Even the trains were segregated. Negroes had to sit on a certain part of the streetcars and whites on another. Blacks were not allowed to go to certain cities because people thought that they brought down the property value. Imagine people thought just the presence of blacks could bring down property value down. Blacks in the south were not free. Southern blacks were forced to work all day for no pay. As soon as the sunrise the slaves had to work until sunset. Blacks in the south had no choice to take a day off or not.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
University of the Basque Country; University of Hull; Highfield House Consultancy abstract This paper brings together research into and using the team role model developed by Belbin (1981, 1993a) in an attempt to provide an exhaustive assessment of construct validity in light of the conflicting evidence so far produced. Role theory is used to contextualize the origins of the model. The psychometric properties of the Team Role Self-Perception Inventory used to assess a personÃ¢â¬â¢s likely behaviour in a team are examined along with 43 empirical studies that have tested theoretical associations between team roles and other cognitive or behavioural traits. While the evidence is mixed, we conclude that, on balance, the model and its accompanying Inventory have adequate convergent validity. However, strong associations between some team roles are observed, indicating weak discriminant validity among some scales in the Inventory. Through its coverage of important areas of teamworking, the paper contributes to the practitioner and research communities by providing fresh insights into aspects of teamworking and by suggesting new research agendas. INTRODUCTION Effective teamworking has become a basic concern for most organizations. While many factors influence a teamÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, considerable attention has been given to the influence of team member diversity in terms of roles played in a team. The team role model made popular by Meredith Belbin in relation to management teams (Belbin, 1981, 1993a) and available commercially through Belbin Associates (1988) is widely used in practice and has featured extensively in research on teams at work. The model is used by many organizations including FTSE-100 companies, multinational agencies, government bodies and consultants and has been translated into 16 languages. This paper therefore reviews the published research and assesses to what extent the model is supported by the available evidence. Through its coverage of important areas of teamworking (conflict management, personality traits, team performance, control and power) the paper contributes to the practitioner and research communities by providing fresh insights into aspects of teamworking and by suggesting new research agendas. We first consider the theoretical context for the team role model. Second, all substantive studies that provide psychometric evidence, relationships to personality factors and evidence for predictive validity are summarized, evaluated and contrasted. Finally, we discuss the validity of the model and consider the wider implications of our findings. ROLE THEORIES Prior to the development of BelbinÃ¢â¬â¢s team role model (1981, 1993a) other roleÃ theories had been put forward (Benne and Sheats, 1948; Graen, 1976; Graen and Scandura, 1987; Holland, 1985) although the modelÃ¢â¬â¢s links to these and other role classifications (e.g. Davis et al., 1992; Margerison and McCann, 1990; Parker, 1990; Spencer and Pruss, 1992; Woodcock, 1989) are unclear. While a comprehensive theoretical examination of the many alternative role theories and models is beyond the scope of this paper, it is important to establish a theoretical context for the team role model. The role concept can be viewed from two different perspectives. From an anthropological-sociological perspective it can be defined as a combination of values, attitudes and behaviour assigned to an individual who occupies a social position (a location in a social network) associated with a specific social status (the functions assigned to that person). From this perspective, a role can be defined as the behaviour that a person displays in relation to his/her social position and social status (Linton, 1945). Secondly, from a psychosocial perspective, a role can be defined as the behaviour expected from an individual occupying a specific position (Biddle, 1979) such that the cognition and expected behaviour associated with the position are fundamentally important to success in the role (Katz and Kahn, 1978). This psychosocial perspective is adopted for the purposes of this review. Since Lewin created the Research Centre for Group Dynamics in 1944, two types of groups have been studied: groups created to solve problems and groups preoccupied with individual development. This duality has brought about a distinction between so-called Ã¢â¬Ëtask rolesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ësocio-emotional rolesÃ¢â¬â¢. In this light, Bales and Slater (1955) studied laboratory groups and concluded that there were significant differences between individuals concerned with solving tasks and individuals concerned with the social and emotional needs of group members. People concerned with solving tasks were called Ã¢â¬Ëtask leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ whereas those concerned with emotional needs were called Ã¢â¬Ëmaintenance or socio-emotional leadersÃ¢â¬â¢. Similarly, Benne and Sheats (1948) proposed a role behaviour classification describing 12 task roles and seven maintenance roles. Task-centred roles were concerned with the coordination of group problem solving activities, whereas Ã maintenance roles were concerned with promoting group-centred behaviour. Both role types were thought necessary for a team to perform well. These theoretical antecedents formed the pillars of the development of the team role model (Belbin, 1981) as its general framework and the names of some team roles connect to these and other theories (Fisher et al., 2001a). Among theoretical models explaining how roles are acquired, a two-part classification can be made (Ilgen and Hollenbeck, 1991). First, there are Ã¢â¬Ërole takingÃ¢â¬â¢ models that consider individuals as passive acceptors of the roles assigned to them by others (Graen, 1976). An example is the Ã¢â¬Ërole episode modelÃ¢â¬â¢ (Katz and Kahn, 1978) where the role is defined by an interaction process between two people; the person performing the role (the focal person) and another who holds a set of beliefs that constitute the role (the role sender). The role sender communicates a set of beliefs and the focal person assumes them. The second classification of role models sees subjects actively participating in the definition and development of their role. These models assume that individuals are much more active and motivated to possess roles that they can perform successfully. They are called Ã¢â¬Ërole makingÃ¢â¬â¢ models because the focal person actively attempts to influence the role sender as they try to build a role that will be acceptable to both of them. Graen and Scandura (1987) proposed the Ã¢â¬Ëtheory of dyadic organizingÃ¢â¬â¢ which integrated and extended GraenÃ¢â¬â¢s first proposal (1976). This theory describes how members of a team coordinate their activities to accomplish tasks that are not prescribed in their positions but fundamental for the effective functioning of the team. When a job role involves very predictable tasks, assigning individuals to roles is relatively easy. However, as work becomes more complex then so do the abilities required by individuals. The question is no longer about the abilities and knowledge a person should have for a specific job but is about predicting how a person will behave in the work unit where the work will beÃ performed. In this sense, Holland (1985) proposed one of the first models that accounted for this individual context adjustment, suggesting that individuals and job environments can be classified into six different types: Ã¢â¬ËrealisticÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËconventionalÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËentrepreneurÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËsocialÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËartisticÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËintellectualÃ¢â¬â¢. Each type is associated with specific activities and abilities possessed by individuals. A set of adjectives characterizes each type. For example, the intellectual type is described as analytical, cautious, critical, inquisitive, independent, pessimistic and reserved. For individuals to be successful and satisfied in a job, their personal abilities, interests and personality traits should adjust with the requirements, rewards and interpersonal relations offered by the job consistent with individual job adjustment theory. Holland (1985) proposed that an individual may display attributes of more than one type and also that there are compatible and incompatible types; for example, Ã¢â¬ËintellectualÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËartisticÃ¢â¬â¢ types are more compatible than Ã¢â¬ËartisticÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËconventionalÃ¢â¬â¢ types. BelbinÃ¢â¬â¢s team role model can be linked to these role theories and role classifications. We now turn to review the literature on the team role model, drawing upon studies using the Team Role Self Perception Inventory (TRSPI) through which it is operationalized. We also review team role assessment using personality questionnaires and empirical studies that have explored the theoretical network of team role constructs in an attempt to better understand how individual team role preference is related to the behavioural definition of team roles as well as to other areas of teamwork behaviour. As with most role theories, BelbinÃ¢â¬â¢s model is not preoccupied with the roles (behavioural patterns) per se but with the ways in which the roles develop, change and interact with other patterns of behaviour over time. The modelÃ was proposed after a nine-year study of team building and team effectiveness with management teams taking part in an executive management exercise (Lawrence, 1974). Prior to participating in the exercise, individuals completed CattellÃ¢â¬â¢s 16PF personality questionnaire and Watson GlaserÃ¢â¬â¢s Critical Thinking Appraisal. For each management team an observer recorded group processes based upon BalesÃ¢â¬â¢ (1950) interactive process analysis and reported their observations. Successful and less successful teams were analysed in terms of their membersÃ¢â¬â¢ personalities and in terms of their critical thinking abilities. Analyses were then crossreferenced with observersÃ¢â¬â¢ reports and, as a result, eight team roles were proposed. The initial categorization of team roles was therefore based on assessments of team membersÃ¢â¬â¢ personalities, critical thinking abilities and a behavioural checklist. The only empirical evidence of the early analysis showed a positive correlation between performance predictions based on team role composition and actual performance across 22 teams (Belbin et al., 1976, p. 26). The eight role model was introduced (Belbin, 1981) and a team role was defined as a pattern of behaviour characteristic of the way in which one team member interacts with another in order to facilitate the progress of the team as a whole. Names and descriptive adjectives for each of the eight team roles were also included. In 1993 some team roles were renamed and a ninth role added. Descriptions of each role are given in Appendix 1. In this model a role is defined by six factors: personality, mental ability, current values and motivation, field constraints, experience, and role learning. However, Belbin did not show how much of the variance in a team role is explained by each factor. In keeping with others (Benne and Sheats, 1948; Torrington et al., 1985), Belbin defends the idea that high performing teams need to have a balanced representation of all team roles. The team role balance hypothesis assumes that if all team roles are present in a team then it will perform better than other teams without the balance. Belbin also considers that the team role concept (a preference to behave in a particular way with other team members while performing tasks) should be distinguished from the concept of functional role which refers to the technical skills and operational knowledge relevant to the job. Consequently, several people mayÃ have the same functional role but vary greatly in their natural team role(s). Belbin also stresses the link between the stages of a teamÃ¢â¬â¢s development and the need for different team roles to dominate at different stages. Six different stages of development are proposed: (1) identifying needs; (2) finding ideas; (3) formulating plans; (4) making ideas; (5) establishing team organization; and (6) following through. In the early stages team roles like Shaper and Co-ordinator will be most needed, whereas in the later stages Completer-Finishers and Implementers make higher contributions. Operationalizing the Model The team role model is ideally operationalized through a self-perception inventory and through observersÃ¢â¬â¢ assessments to give a rounded assessment of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s team role. The Ã original Team Role Self Perception Inventory (TRSPI-8R) was hand-scored such that respondents computed their own profile. This version was later modified to embody the nine role model (TRSPI-9R) and for this version respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ profiles are generated by the Interplace computer package. Since it was never intended that the TRSPI should be the only input to exploring a personÃ¢â¬â¢s team role, an Observer Assessment Sheet (OAS) was also designed to be used by work colleagues who could make an informed judgement based on their knowledge of the person. The OAS should be used alongside the TRSPI although in many situations only the inventory is used. Details of the scoring procedures for these instruments are given in Appendix 2. The second way of assessing team roles is derived from personality questionnaires; equations to derive team roles have been developed in conjunction with personality questionnaire publishers. In particular, CattellÃ¢â¬â¢s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell et al., 1970) and the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ; Saville et al.,Ã 1992) have been used (see Dulewicz, 1995). Reviewing the Evidence This review draws upon 43 substantive studies of the team role model using the TRSPI, OAS and personality inventories. A table showing the purpose of each study, its aims, instruments and sample used along with the key findings is available from the first author. Psychometric evidence. Eight studies have analysed the psychometric properties of the TRSPI and two have reported results from the OAS. Initial evaluations were critical (Furnham et al., 1993a, 1993b; Broucek and Randell, 1996) and one study arrived at mixed conclusions (Beck et al., 1999). Recent studies have been more supportive of the TRSPIÃ¢â¬â¢s reliability and structure (Swailes and McIntyre-Bhatty, 2002, 2003). Since the first criticism of the TRSPI (Furnham et al., 1993a), other researchers have raised concerns about the statistical properties of the original inventories as well as their theoretical basis (Broucek and Randell, 1996). An important issue affecting psychometric evaluation of the TRSPI stems from its i psative nature which is outlined in Appendix 2. Evidence for the TRSPI. Furnham et al. (1993a) reported low reliability values for three different versions of the TRSPI. Correlations between team roles were different for a normatively scored (Likert scale) version (M = 0.36) and the original ipsative version (M = -0.29). Factor structures were also different for normative values (two well-defined task and socioemotional factors) and for ipsative scoring (four bipolar factors). Both Senior (1998) and Beck et al. (1999), in their respective exploratory factor analyses, also reported an underlying four factor structure for the ipsative version of the TRSPI. However, the ipsative design of the TRSPI was deliberate and any comparison of forms should recognize that transforming the ipsative structure of the instrument may alter its nature. (See Belbin (1993b) for a rebuke of the normative version.) In the ipsative form the average interscale correlation will be negative (Meade, 2004) whereas in a normative form scales are allowed to correlate freely. In this context, Furnham et al. (1993a) raised concerns about the theoretical basis of the inventory and a lack of evidence for its psychometric properties, noting that the test was Ã¢â¬Ëneither theoretically nor empirically derived as Belbin developed his team role typology based on observatory and inductive, Ã rather than theoretically deductive meansÃ¢â¬â¢ (p. 247) with a limited sample of 78 managers. Similarly, Broucek and Randell (1996) raised concerns about the internal consistency and discriminant validity of the TRSPI and the OAS. They also noted that both tests could not be considered as parallel forms of the same construct. The average correlation between team roles was 0.27 for ipsative scoring and 0.42 for normative scoring; higher correlations were expected from the self-reported data collected by both tests. Similarly, Senior and Swailes (1998) also reported that both TRSPI and OAS did not show high convergent validity as only five team roles showed significant correlations with an average of 0.27. Broucek and Randell (1996) also reported that different correlations were found between the normative and ipsative versions of the TRSPI and the NEO-PI-(R) personality scale although 8 out of 19 predictions for the ipsative version and 14 out of 19 for the normative version were correctly hypothesized. Different correlation values were taken as Ã¢â¬Ëdramatic evidence of the type of distortion which use of an ipsative instrument producesÃ¢â¬â¢ (p. 401). Similarly, Fisher et al. (1996) looked at the correspondence between the TRSPI and 16PF and found low correlation values on the validity diagonal. Broucek and Randell also tested the discriminant validity of the OAS against the NEO-PI (R) Big Five personality factors, although Fisher et al. (2001a, pp. 125Ã¢â¬â6) noted that such analysis was dependent on the orthogonality of the personality factors and, as far as the factors have been found to be oblique (Costa and McCrae, 1992), any conclusion regarding the discriminant validity of the OAS should be taken cautiously.